Here, we present one of the first studies investigating the mobility, solubility and the speciation-dependent in-situ bioaccumulation of antimony (Sb) in an active Sb mining area (Xikuangshan, China). Total Sb concentrations in soils are high (527-11,798 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>), and all soils, including those taken from a paddy field and a vegetable garden, show a high bioavailable Sb fraction (6.3-748 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>), dominated by Sb(V). Elevated concentrations in native plant species (109-4029 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) underpin this. Both chemical equilibrium studies and XANES data suggest the presence of Ca[Sb(OH)<inf>6</inf>]<inf>2</inf>, controlling Sb solubility. A very close relationship was found between the citric acid extractable Sb in plants and water or sulfate extractable Sb in soil, indicating that citric acid extractable Sb content in plants may be a better predictor for bioavailable Sb in soil than total acid digestible Sb plant content. ©2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.