Notably, many significant breakthroughs for a new generation of supercapacitors have been reported in recent years, related to theoretical understanding, material synthesis and device designs. Herein, we summarize the state-of-the-art progress toward mechanisms, new materials, and novel device designs for supercapacitors. Firstly, fundamental understanding of the mechanism is mainly focused on the relationship between the structural properties of electrode materials and their electrochemical performances based on some in situ characterization techniques and simulations. Secondly, some emerging electrode materials are discussed, including metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), covalent organic frameworks (COFs), MXenes, metal nitrides, black phosphorus, LaMnO3, and RbAg4I5/graphite. Thirdly, the device innovations for the next generation of supercapacitors are provided successively, mainly emphasizing flow supercapacitors, alternating current (AC) line-filtering supercapacitors, redox electrolyte enhanced supercapacitors, metal ion hybrid supercapacitors, micro-supercapacitors (fiber, plane and three-dimensional) and multifunctional supercapacitors including electrochromic supercapacitors, self-healing supercapacitors, piezoelectric supercapacitors, shape-memory supercapacitors, thermal self-protective supercapacitors, thermal self-charging supercapacitors, and photo self-charging supercapacitors. Finally, the future developments and key technical challenges are highlighted regarding further research in this thriving field.
The growing potential of quantum dots (QDs) in biological and biomedical applications has raised considerable concern due to their toxicological impact. Consequently, it is urgent to elucidate the underlying toxicity mechanism of QDs. In this work, we comprehensively investigated the cellular uptake of four CdSe/ZnS QDs (COOH CdSe/ZnS 525, COOH CdSe/ZnS 625, NH2 CdSe/ZnS 525, and NH2 CdSe/ZnS 625) and induced physiological responses in Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P.chrysosporium) through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and the determination of malondialdehyde content, superoxide level, superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity and glutathione level. The results showed that the four CdSe/ZnS QDs accumulated largely in the hyphae and caused oxidative stress to P.chrysosporium in the tested concentration range (10-80 nM). Furthermore, the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity were related to the physicochemical properties of the QDs, such as particle size and surface charges. Negatively charged CdSe/ZnS QDs with small size could be more easily ingested by P.chrysosporium than large ones; thus small size CdSe/ZnS QDs were more cytotoxic to P.chrysosporium. On the other hand, small negatively charged CdSe/ZnS QDs resulted in greater cytotoxicity than large negatively charged CdSe/ZnS QDs. The obtained results offer valuable information for revealing the toxicity mechanism of QDs in living cells.