Notably, many significant breakthroughs for a new generation of supercapacitors have been reported in recent years, related to theoretical understanding, material synthesis and device designs. Herein, we summarize the state-of-the-art progress toward mechanisms, new materials, and novel device designs for supercapacitors. Firstly, fundamental understanding of the mechanism is mainly focused on the relationship between the structural properties of electrode materials and their electrochemical performances based on some in situ characterization techniques and simulations. Secondly, some emerging electrode materials are discussed, including metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), covalent organic frameworks (COFs), MXenes, metal nitrides, black phosphorus, LaMnO3, and RbAg4I5/graphite. Thirdly, the device innovations for the next generation of supercapacitors are provided successively, mainly emphasizing flow supercapacitors, alternating current (AC) line-filtering supercapacitors, redox electrolyte enhanced supercapacitors, metal ion hybrid supercapacitors, micro-supercapacitors (fiber, plane and three-dimensional) and multifunctional supercapacitors including electrochromic supercapacitors, self-healing supercapacitors, piezoelectric supercapacitors, shape-memory supercapacitors, thermal self-protective supercapacitors, thermal self-charging supercapacitors, and photo self-charging supercapacitors. Finally, the future developments and key technical challenges are highlighted regarding further research in this thriving field.
The growing potential of quantum dots (QDs) in biological and biomedical applications has raised considerable concern due to their toxicological impact. Consequently, it is urgent to elucidate the underlying toxicity mechanism of QDs. In this work, we comprehensively investigated the cellular uptake of four CdSe/ZnS QDs (COOH CdSe/ZnS 525, COOH CdSe/ZnS 625, NH2 CdSe/ZnS 525, and NH2 CdSe/ZnS 625) and induced physiological responses in Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P.chrysosporium) through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and the determination of malondialdehyde content, superoxide level, superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity and glutathione level. The results showed that the four CdSe/ZnS QDs accumulated largely in the hyphae and caused oxidative stress to P.chrysosporium in the tested concentration range (10-80 nM). Furthermore, the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity were related to the physicochemical properties of the QDs, such as particle size and surface charges. Negatively charged CdSe/ZnS QDs with small size could be more easily ingested by P.chrysosporium than large ones; thus small size CdSe/ZnS QDs were more cytotoxic to P.chrysosporium. On the other hand, small negatively charged CdSe/ZnS QDs resulted in greater cytotoxicity than large negatively charged CdSe/ZnS QDs. The obtained results offer valuable information for revealing the toxicity mechanism of QDs in living cells.
The utilization of solar energy based on semiconductor photocatalysts for pollutant removal and environmental remediation has become a research hot spot and attracted great attention. In this study, a novel ternary BiVO4/Ag/Cu2O nanocomposite has been successfully synthesized via simple wet impregnation of Cu2O particles coupled with a subsequent photo-reduction pathway for the deposition of metallic Ag on the surface of BiVO4. The resulting BiVO4/Ag/Cu2O photocatalyst was used for the degradation of tetracycline (TC) under visible light irradiation (lambda > 420 nm). Results showed that the coating contents of the Cu2O and Ag particles presented a great effect on the eventual photocatalytic activity of the photocatalysts, and the optimum coating contents of Cu2O and Ag were obtained with their mass ratios of 3% and 2%, respectively. Under optimum conditions, nearly 91.22% TC removal efficiency was obtained based on ternary BiVO4/Ag/Cu2O nanocomposites, higher than that of pure BiVO4 (42.9%) and binary BiVO4/Cu2O (65.17%) and BiVO4/Ag (72.63%) nanocomposites. Meanwhile, the enhanced total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency also indicated the excellent photocatalytic degradation ability of the BiVO4/Ag/ Cu2O nanocomposites. As for their practical application, the effects of initial TC concentration, various supporting electrolytes and different irradiation conditions were investigated in detail. Three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3D EEMs) was used to show the by-products of TC molecule degradation. Cycling experiments indicated the high stability of the as-prepared photocatalysts. Furthermore, the results obtained from radical trapping experiments and ESR measurements suggested that the photocatalytic degradation of TC in the BiVO4/Ag/Cu2O based photocatalytic system was the joint action of the photogenerated holes (h(+)), superoxide radical (O-center dot(2)-) and hydroxyl radical ((OH)-O-center dot). The enhanced photocatalytic activity of BiVO4/Ag/Cu2O was attributed to the synergistic effect of Cu2O, Ag and BiVO4, especially the surface plasmon resonance effect and the established local electric field brought about by metallic Ag. Additionally, to deeply understand the reaction mechanism, a dual Z-scheme charge transfer pathway has been proposed.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A,2018年6(5):2166-2175 ISSN：2050-7488
[Zhao, Kuangmin; He, Zhen; Ye, Guanying; Liu, Suqin; Gan, Qingmeng] College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410083, China;[Zhao, Kuangmin; Ye, Guanying; Gan, Qingmeng] Innovation Base of Energy and Chemical Materials for Graduate Stud. Training, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410083, China;[Zhou, Zhi] Science College of Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, Hunan, 410128, China
[Liu, Suqin; He, Zhen] Cent S Univ, Coll Chem & Chem Engn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China.
Anode material for lithium ion batteries - High current densities - High reversible capacities - Large specific surface areas - Metal oxide composite - Metalorganic frameworks (MOFs) - Supercapacitor electrodes - Two Dimensional (2 D)