Background/Aims: Early weaning often causes gut dysfunction. Since serine alleviates oxidative stress and inflammatory response which are accompany with early weaning, we conducted the study to explore whether serine improves intestinal function in early-weaned piglets. Methods: Twenty-eight weaned piglets (aged 21 d) were fed either a basal diet or a basal diet plus 0.2% serine. We determined the effects of dietary serine supplementation on intestinal morphology by hematoxylin and eosin staining, expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs) by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, expression of inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis markers by RT-qPCR and the level of antioxidant enzymes with ELISA kits in early-weaned piglets. Results: Serine supplementation increased daily body weight gain while decreasing diarrhea incidence. Both the jejunum and ileum of serine-supplemented piglets showed regularly arranged villi and microvilli. Moreover, dietary serine increased TJP expression, and alleviated apoptosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in the intestine of early-weaned piglets. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that serine has the potential for use as a feed additive to prevent gut dysfunction caused by weaning. (C) 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel
The antimicrobial peptide buforin II contains residues Thr16 to Lys36 of buforin I and exhibits antimicrobial activity that is twice as potent as that of its parent peptide. Buforin II was expressed in Pichia pastoris FZM(2009) as a fusion peptide linked to porcine interferon-a and tested as an alternative to antimicrobial growth-promoters in pig production. Fifteen Landrace x Yorkshire barrows (5.55 +/- 0.49 kg), weaned at 21 days of age, were challenged with three enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains. The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups with 5 barrows in each, fed a maize-soybean meal diet, and orally dosed with 5 mL sterile water (CON), 5 mL buforin II (BF; 0.05 mg/mL in sterile water), or 5 mL colistin sulphate (CS; 0.5 mg/mL in sterile water) twice daily for 21 days. Compared with CS and CON, oral administration of BF increased (P<0.05) daily weight gain, feed intake gain, and feed conversion. The expression of tight junction proteins and protective factors in the small intestine also increased in BF-treated piglets. Compared with the CON group, oral administration of BF and CS decreased (P<0.05) for the abundance of hemolytic E. coli in rectal swabs. Collectively, our results indicate that oral administration of buforin II protects small intestinal mucosal membrane integrity by increasing the abundance of tight junction proteins and enhancing the expression of protective factors, and can reduce hemolytic E. coli concentrations in the intestines of piglets. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, A. P.;Zhang, J. M.*;Meng, Y. L.;Deng, L. Q.;Lv, Y. F.;Li, C.;Wang, J. Q.
Journal of Dairy Science,2012年95(9):5127-5132 ISSN：0022-0302
Zhang, J. M.
[Li, C.; Wang, J. Q.; Lv, Y. F.; Meng, Y. L.; Deng, L. Q.; Zhang, J. M.; Wang, A. P.] Chinese Acad Agr Sci, State Key Lab Anim Nutr, Inst Anim Sci, Beijing 100193, Peoples R China.;[Wang, A. P.] Hunan Agr Univ, Coll Anim Sci & Technol, Changsha 410128, Hunan, Peoples R China.;[Lv, Y. F.] S China Agr Univ, Coll Anim Sci & Technol, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong, Peoples R China.
[Zhang, J. M.] Chinese Acad Agr Sci, State Key Lab Anim Nutr, Inst Anim Sci, Beijing 100193, Peoples R China.
Free gossypol residues in tissues or milk from feeding whole cottonseed and cottonseed meal were measured for their effect on health of dairy cows and humans. Forty lactating cows were randomly assigned to 5 treatments in a 60-d experiment to investigate the effects of sources and dietary level of gossypol on plasma and milk gossypol concentrations in lactating cows. Five experimental diets had identical net energy for lactation and crude protein content on a dry matter (DM) basis. Soybean meal was the main protein ingredient used in the control diet. Cottonseed meal (CSM) or whole cottonseed (WCS) substituted for part of the soybean meal in the other 4 diets. Gossypol levels in the 5 diets were 0 (control), 91.15 mg/kg of DM in CSM1, 117.31 mg/kg of DM in CSM2, 385.43 mg/kg of DM in WCS1, and 611.13 mg/kg in WCS2. Yields of 3.5% fat-corrected milk were significantly higher for cows in the WCS2 group; cows in the CSM1 and WCS1 groups showed no differences but both were numerically higher than the control and CSM2 groups. Milk protein concentration was lower for cows consuming WCS1 compared with the control group. Lactose concentration was lower for cows in the CSM2 group compared with the WCS2 group, but no differences were observed among other diets. Aspartate aminotransferase in serum was significantly higher for the WCS2 group compared with the control and WCS1 groups, but no difference was observed with the CSM1 and CSM2 groups. Concentrations of gossypol in plasma and milk of cows in the WCS1 and WCS2 groups were both higher than those of the other groups. No adverse effects were observed on cows fed diets containing 12.0% CSM, and no gossypol was found in plasma and milk. When WCS comprised 15% of the diet DM, yields of 3.5% fat-corrected milk were increased in cows and gossypol was detected in plasma and milk but not at harmful levels.
Large yellow croaker<&wdkj&>RanGTPase<&wdkj&>Protein interaction<&wdkj&>Myosin light chain<&wdkj&>Immunization<&wdkj&>Up-regulated expression
RanGTPases are highly conserved in eukaiyotes from yeast to human and have been implicated in many aspects of nuclear structure and function. In our previous study, it was revealed that the RanGTPase was up-regulated in large yellow croaker challenged by pathogen. However, the mechanism of RanGTPase in immunity remains unclear. In this investigation, on the basis of protein interaction, it was found that RanGTPase interacted with myosin light chain (designated as LycMLC), a crucial protein in the process of phagocytosis. Furthermore, it was found and characterized in this marine fish for the first time. The full-length cDNA of LycMLC was 771 bp, including a 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) of 36 bp, 3'-terminal UTR of 279 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 456 bp encoding a polypeptide of 151 amino acids. RT-PCR analysis indicated that LycMLC gene was constitutively expressed in the 9 tissues examined, including kidney, liver, gill, muscle, spleen, skin, heart, intestine and blood. The result of quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed the highest expression in muscle and the weakest expression in skin. Time course analysis showed that LycMLC expression was obviously up-regulated in blood after immunization with either poly I:C or formalin-inactive Gram-negative bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus. It indicated that the highest expression was 4.5 times (at 24 h) as much as that in the control (P<0.05) challenged by poly I:C and 5.0 times (at 24 h) challenged by bacteria. These results suggested that LycMLC might play an important role in large yellow croaker defense against the pathogen infection. Therefore our study revealed a novel pathway concerning immunity of RanGTPase by the direct interaction with the cytoskeleton protein, which would help to better understand the molecular events in immune response against pathogen infection in fish. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In this study, expressions of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and apoptosis-related genes in piglets and mitochondrial respiration in intestinal porcine epithelial cells were investigated after hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure. The in vivo results showed that H2O2 influenced intestinal expressions of TLRs and apoptosis related genes. H2O2 treatment (5% and 10%) downregulated uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) expression in the duodenum (P < 0.05), while low dosage of H2O2 significantly increased UCP2 expression in the jejunum (P < 0.05). In IPEC-J2 cells, H2O2 inhibited cell proliferation (P < 0.05) and caused mitochondrial dysfunction via reducing maximal respiration, spare respiratory, non-mitochondrial respiratory, and ATP production (P < 0.05). However, 50 uM H2O2 significantly enhanced mitochondrial proton leak (P < 0.05). In conclusion, H2O2 affected intestinal TLRs system, apoptosis related genes, and mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo and in vitro models. Meanwhile, low dosage of H2O2 might exhibit a feedback regulatory mechanism against oxidative injury via increasing UCP2 expression and mitochondrial proton leak.
Key Laboratory for Agro-Ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Natl. Eng. Lab. for Pollution Control and Waste Utilization in Livestock and Poultry Production, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, Hunan, China
Abnormal telomerase activity is implicated in cancer initiation and development. The rs2736100 T > G polymorphism in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene, which encodes the telomerase catalytic subunit, has been associated with increased cancer risk. We conducted a meta-analysis to more precisely assess this association. After a comprehensive literature search of the PubMed and EMBASE databases up to November 1, 2016, 61 articles with 72 studies comprising 108,248 cases and 161,472 controls were included in our meta-analysis. Studies were conducted on various cancer types. The TERT rs2736100 polymorphism was associated with increased overall cancer risk in five genetic models [homozygous model (GG vs. TT): odds ratio (OR) = 1.39, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.26-1.54, P < 0.001; heterozygous model (TG vs. TT): OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.11-1.23, P < 0.001; dominant model (TG + GG vs. TT): OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.15-1.31, P < 0.001; recessive model (GG vs. TG + TT): OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.16-1.35, P < 0.001; and allele contrast model (G vs. T): OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.12-1.23, P < 0.001]. A stratified analysis based on cancer type associated the polymorphism with elevated risk of thyroid cancer, bladder cancer, lung cancer, glioma, myeloproliferative neoplasms, and acute myeloid leukemia. Our results confirm that the TERT rs2736100 polymorphism confers increased overall cancer risk.
The daily variations in circulating fatty acid (FA) contents and lipid metabolism have been well documented. However, whether long chain polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) contents and expression of genes involved in their de novo synthesis exhibit daily rhythms are yet unknown. We conducted the present study to investigate the daily variations in PUFA contents in plasma and liver of pigs. Moreover, diurnal expression of genes encode fatty acid desaturases and elongases, which are key enzymes catalyzed de novo synthesis of long chain PUFA, were also explored. The results showed that long chain PUFA contents in plasma and liver both exhibited diurnal rhythms. Diurnal variations were also observed in mRNA expression of FASD1 (Delta 5-desaturase), FASD2 (Delta 6-desaturase), ELOVL5 (fatty acid elongase 5) and ELOVL2 in liver, with an unexpectedly high level at night. Moreover, our results showed a similarity between the diurnal patterns of FASD1, FASD2, ELOVL2, ELOVL5 and Period 2. These results indicated a high activity of the desaturase-elongase pathway at night in pigs. These findings have important physiological and pathophysiological implications, since long chain PUFA are essential for cell function and closely involved in the development of metabolic syndrome.
This study was conducted to test the hypotheses that dietary arginine and glutamine supplementation may confer beneficial effect on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2)-infected pigs. The measured variables included: 1) average daily weight gain (ADG), feed conversion rate (FCR); 2) PCV2 virus load in the submaxillary lymph node, spleen, liver, kidney and heart at 20 days post infection (DPI); 3) microscopic lesions in the spleen at 20 DPI; 4) serum cytokine levels, serum antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, T-SOD and GSH-PX), serum PCV2 virus load, serum nitric oxide (NO) and serum PCV2 antibody titers at 5, 10, 15 and 20 DPI. Dietary arginine and glutamine supplementation conferred positive effect on the production of PCV2 infected pigs. Meanwhile, arginine and glutamine supplementation increased the antioxidant capacity and immune response, and decreased the PCV2 virus load in tissue. Moreover, these beneficial effects may be mainly performed through NO. It was concluded that dictary, arginine and glutamine supplementation confers positive effect on the PCV2 infected pigs.