The effect of dietary chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) supplementation on ileal digestibilities of nutrients and performance in broilers was assessed by feeding graded levels (0, 50, 100, 150 mg/kg) of COS. Two thousand four hundred male commercial Avian broilers (1-d-old) were assigned randomly to 5 dietary treatment groups (60 birds per pen with 8 pens per treatment). Diet A was a typical corn- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 6 mg/kg of an antibiotic flavomycin (positive control). Diet B was the basal diet without any supplement. Diets C, D, and E were formulated by adding 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of COS to the basal diet, respectively. On the morning of d 21 and 42, 64 birds (8 per pen with 8 pens per treatment) from the growth trial for each age group were killed by cervical dislocation for determination of the ileal digestibilities of nutrients. Dietary supplementation with COS and antibiotic enhanced (P < 0.05) the ileal digestibilities of DM, Ca, P, CP, and all amino acids (except for alanine in the 21-d-old birds or phenylalanine, glutamate, and glycine for the 42-d-old birds). Feed efficiency was improved (P < 0.05) in response to dietary supplementation of an antibiotic or COS (150 mg/kg for d 1 to 21, and 100 and 150 mg/kg for d 21 to 42). The results demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge that dietary COS supplementation was effective in increasing the ileal digestibilities of nutrients and feed efficiency in broilers. Our findings may explain a beneficial effect of COS on chicken growth performance.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary resveratrol supplementation on innate immunity and inflammatory responses in the spleen of yellow-feather broilers under heat stress. A total of 288 yellow-feather broilers of 28-day-old were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups with 6 replicates. A thermo-neutral group (TN) (24 +/- 2 degrees C) received a basal diet and another 2 heat-stressed groups (37 +/- 2 degrees C for 8 h/D and 24 +/- 2 degrees C for the remaining time) were fed the basal diet (HT) or basal diet with 500 mg/kg resveratrol (HT+Res) for 14 consecutive days. The results showed that heat stress decreased (P < 0.05) the growth index of thymus, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius, reduced (P < 0.05) the levels of complement C3 and C4 in serum. Heat stress also caused activation of inflammatory immune responses evidenced by increased (P < 0.05) the mRNA abundance of HSP (heat shock protein) 70, toll-like receptor (TLR)1, TLR4, TLR5, myeloid differentiation factor-88 (MyD88), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1), Dectin-1, transforming growth factor-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, but decreased the mRNA abundance of interferon (IFN)-gamma, activated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and phosphoinositide-3 kinases-protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathways. Dietary supplementation with resveratrol improved (P < 0.05) the growth index of thymus, spleen and bursa Fabricius, and increased (P < 0.05) the serum level of complement C3 under heat stress. In addition, resveratrol reduced (P < 0.05) the mRNA abundance of HSP70, TLR4, TLR5, NOD1, Dectin-1, and TAK1, and inhibited the NF-kappaB, MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway via down-regulated the phosphorylation of p65, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase and AKT, as well as decreased the inflammatory cytokines expression, including IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, and TNF-alpha in the spleen under heat stress. Collectively, dietary resveratrol could have beneficial effects to regulate innate immunity and inflammatory response, via inhibiting the activation of NF-kappaB, MAPK, and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways induced by heat stress in the spleen.