"rice field spider";"study advances";China;"predation function"
Many laboratory and field studies have been conducted on rice field spiders in China. There are 375 species, 108 genera, and 22 families of rice field spiders distributed within the major rice growing areas and 17 dominant species. The biological and ecological characteristics of 17 rice field spider species have been reported in detail. The biology and ecology of these species show significant differences among regions, farmland habitats, and agricultural practices. Future research should focus on rice field habitat diversity, enhancing the insecticide resistance of dominant spider populations, implementing large-scale breeding of spiders and augmentative release, breeding more leaf dominant species, conducting biosafety assessment of spiders in transgenic crops.
Due to some similarity of innate immunity between insects and mammals, the study of the molecular mechanism of innate immunity in insects has become a focus of research. However, the exact molecular and cellular basis of immune system in insect remains poorly understood. Characterization of the transcriptomic response to Cd of spider is an effective approach to understanding the innate immunity mechanisms. In this study, we carried out transcriptome sequencing and gene expression analyses to develop molecular resources for Pardosa pseudoannulata venom glands with and without Cd treatments. A total of 92,778 assembled unigenes and 237 Cd stress-associated differentially expressed genes between the Cd-treated and control groups were obtained. Expression profile analysis demonstrated that immunity-related genes involved in bacterial invasion of epithelial cells, leukocyte transendothelial migration, platelet activation, apoptosis, phagosome, and Rap1 signaling pathway were upregulated by Cd exposure, except the genes involved in PPAR signaling pathway were downregulated. Our results provide the first comprehensive transcriptome dataset of venom glands in P. pseudoannulata response to Cd, which is valuable for throws light on the immunotoxicity mechanism of Cd, and the innate immunity complexity.