This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of dietary glutamate and aspartate supplementations on diquat-induced oxidative stress in piglets. Diquat injection significantly reduced growth performance, including body weight, average daily weight gain, and feed intake (P<0.05). Meanwhile, diquat administration induced oxidative stress evidenced by the decreased serum nitric oxide (NO) and elevated malondialdeyhde (MDA) concentration (P<0.05). Furthermore, diquat-induced oxidative stress disrupted intestinal absorption system and decreased serum threonine, serine, and glycine levels. Dietary supplementation with glutamate improved final body weight, antioxidant system, and expressions of amino acids transporters and enhanced serum glutamate concentration compared with diquat group (P<0.05). While aspartate failed to alleviate diquat-induced oxidative stress, growth depression, and dysfunction of nutrients absorption except for liver relative weight. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with glutamate confers beneficial effects on diquat-induced oxidative stress in piglets, while aspartate exhibits little effects.
Once the cells are challenged by intra-and extracellular environmental stimuli such as nitric oxide, calcium and pathogenic organisms, the oxidative balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) (such as O-2(center dot-), H2O2, OH center dot) production and antioxidant defense systems (such as glutathione reductase and catalase) is broken, resulting in accumulation of ROS within cells. ROS is linked with various cellular signaling pathways, including the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/Keap1(Nrf2/Keap1), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B), protein kinase C (PKC), signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR gamma), which engaged in regulating pro-oxidant genes and antioxidant genes expression, and mediate cells oxidative injury and antioxidant defense system. This article therefore mainly focuses on: 1) the production of ROS; 2) Nrf2/Keap1, MAPKs, NF-kappa B, PKC, STAT3, and PPAR gamma activation mechanism by ROS.
Food and Function,2014年5(5):833-844 ISSN：2042-6496
Trio, Phoebe Zapanta
[Hou, De-Xing; Trio, Phoebe Zapanta] Kagoshima Univ, Fac Agr, United Grad Sch Agr Sci, Course Biol Sci & Technol, Kagoshima 8900065, Japan.;[He, Xi; You, Sixiang; Hou, De-Xing; He, Jianhua] Hunan Agr Univ, Engn Res Ctr Feed Safety & Efficient Utilizat, Educ Minist, Changsha 410128, Hunan, Peoples R China.;[Sakao, Kozue; You, Sixiang; Hou, De-Xing] Kagoshima Univ, Fac Agr, Dept Biochem Sci & Technol, Kagoshima 8900065, Japan.;[Trio, Phoebe Zapanta] Kagoshima Univ, Fac Agr, United Grad Sch Agr Sci, Course Biol Sci & Technol, Korimoto 1-21-24, Kagoshima 8900065, Japan.
[Trio, Phoebe Zapanta] Kagoshima Univ, Fac Agr, United Grad Sch Agr Sci, Course Biol Sci & Technol, Korimoto 1-21-24, Kagoshima 8900065, Japan.
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has long been used both for culinary and medicinal purposes by many cultures. Population and preclinical investigations have suggested that dietary garlic intake has health benefits, such as lowering the risk of esophageal, stomach and prostate cancers. Extensive studies from laboratory and animal models have revealed that garlic has a wide range of biological activities, and garlic organosulfur compounds (OSCs) are responsible for the biological activities. However, the presence and potency of garlic OSCs vary with respect to the mode of garlic preparation and extraction. Cooked or processed garlic products showed different kinds of garlic OSCs, some of which are highly unstable and instantly decomposed. These facts, possibly gave paradoxical results on the garlic effects. In this review, we first summarized the biotransformation processes of garlic alliin into different garlic OSCs as well as the garlic OSCs compositions from different garlic preparations. Next, we reviewed the chemopreventive functions and molecular mechanisms focusing on the anti-inflammation, antioxidation, anti-diabetes and anticancer activity behind different garlic OSCs.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation with chitosan (COS) could reduce diarrhea and to explore how COS alleviates intestinal inflammation in weaned pigs. Thirty pigs (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire, initial BW of 5.65±0.27) weaned at age 21 d were challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli during a preliminary trial period, and then divided into three treatment groups. Pigs in individual pens were fed a corn-soybean meal diet, that contained either 0 (control), 50 mg/kg chlortetracycline, or 300 mg/kg COS for 21 days. The post-weaning diarrhea frequency, calprotectin levels and TLR4 protein expression were decreased (P<0.05) in both the COS and chlortetracycline groups compared with control. Simultaneously, supplemental COS and chlortetracycline had no effect on the mRNA expression of TNF-α in the jejunal mucosa, or on the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in serum. However, COS supplementation improved (P<0.05) the mRNA expression of IL-1β and IL-6 in the jejunal mucosa. The results indicate that supplementation with COS at 300 mg/kg was effective for alleviating intestinal inflammation and enhancing the cell-mediated immune response. As feed additives, chitosan and chlortetracycline may influence different mechanisms for alleviating inflammation in piglets.